The Tams formed in 1960, and took their name from the Tam o'shanter hats they wore on stage. By 1962, they had a hit single on Arlen Records. "Untie Me", a Joe South composition, became a Top 20 on the Billboard R&B chart. The follow-up releases largely failed until 1964, when "What Kind of Fool (Do You Think I Am)", reached the Top 10 on the US Billboard Hot 100. The song spent three weeks at number one on the Cash Box R&B chart. Many of their popular hits were written by Ray Whitley.